If I tell you that all the seaweed you see on your local beach is edible bar one* which is not likely to be present anyway – does that demystify the whole subject a little? At Wild Harvest we teach many different subjects broken down to be easily accessible for beginners and yet which take our learners to a level of basic proficiency. Its ok to be a master of one subject like foraging, or an artist in something like basketry but where will that get you if the situation is not about pleasure but survival?
So, this Seaweed Survival blogpost is designed to give you enough knowledge to make some basic foods and still benefit from the same bountiful health benefits that eating fancifully prepared and nominally challenging recipes will bestow. I believe we should be unashamedly pragmatic in our learning journeys in order to keep moving forward, there is no need to make the learning journey so complicated, information overload stops us starting. At Wild Harvest we encourage people towards the confidence to move from ‘head-to-practice’ by giving simple easy to follow instructions and just enough peripheral knowledge to interest not overwhelm you – so here are the seaweed survival basics to give you the confidence to get out:
There are some general harvesting and processing rules that can learned for foraging in general and can apply to coastal foraging too without the need for much more, for example
Harvesting – from an unpolluted environment, at the optimum time of the day/year for the best nutritional benefits and safety of the collector, without uprooting – just cutting a plant and not stripping a resource bare when you find something you like.
Processing – once you know that most of our seaweed is edible the only difference is preference for one taste over another ie palatability rather than actual edibility. It is simply preference that will determine how you process seaweed because all of it can be processed in pretty much the same ways. In a survival situation of course palatability or preference is less of an issue than edibilty and nutritional value – all of our seaweed can be quite tastily:
Patted dry and fried from fresh either shallow fry or deep fry into crisps
Boiled/added to mash potato or cooked grains and cooked in oil or fat as patties
Boiled as a vegetable
Eaten (a little) raw (if sea is clean)
Dried and crumbled or powdered and stored in a jar for later rehydration in a stock or soup.
Health benefits of eating seaweed
Seaweed is one of the few foods that is contains all of the 56 trace elements essential for human health, amongst them is calcium, iron, magnesium, iodine, potassium and selenium (the latter becoming scarcer in farmed land veg due to soil depletion). The brown sea weed especially is rich in alginates …… and fibre for the digestive tract. Seaweed is a low fat and calorie food despite being also high in fibre and minerals. Purple seaweed like Laver contains more B Vitamins while Kelp in particular is rich in Lignans which are pre-cursors in the body to the formation of phyto-oestrogens. This is linked to Japanese women’s low incidence of breast cancer. The Okinowans from an Island off Japan eat between 7 – 10 portions a day and are the worlds oldest nation. Iodine present in seaweed helps with thyroid functioning.
Seaweed is cited as ensuring a healthy heart and digestive system and can also detox the body of heavy metals. It is a useful ingredient where there has been a radiation leak.
Note the drying of leaves does not compromise the nutritional value as its mostly water that is lost though any vitamin c will deplete with oxidation and heat.
Topically seaweed is good for hair, scalp and skin (face and body) its unusually rich combination of minerals, nutrients and amino acids are drank up by the skin and absorbed by the hair to give a shiny healthy appearance. It moisturises, is beneficial for anti-ageing and calms senstive and spotty skin. Add dried powdered sea weed to soap making, bath salts, or body butter and conditioners.
Making iodine solution.
Steps to extract iodine from seaweed:
Burn some seaweed in a metal container above heat.
Wash the ash with distilled water, filter it through cloth or coffee filter paper.
Boil the water until there is just watery salt left.
Put this in a glass jar.
Now add sulphuric acid (car battery?) – the water should go purple brown. (When you add the sulphuric acid it hisses and some liquid evaporates there’s a possiblity that if you put muslin cloth or iodine paper over the jar you may catch some crystals).
Adding sodium hydroxide dissolves the iodine crystals into the solution and neutralises the acid.
You will have a brown liquid that you can test the strength of (how many ppm from 0 – 50 of iodine) using iodine paper (a bit like litmus paper).
Fertilize Your Soil With Seaweed
One cold November when back-packing alone with two toddlers I stayed at a community in Scotland. Erraid is the smaller sister community to Findhorn and I earned our stay there by trudging up and down to the beach to collect seaweed then covering the growing beds with a deep layer of mulch. Over winter the seaweed would rot down nourishing the soil ready for Spring and in addition to the usual benefits of any mulch seaweed has the extra advantages of:
Not carrying weed seeds
Not carrying diseases of land plants
Breaking down easily
Rich in Selenium
*Desmarestia – is the name of the toxic seaweed. It is a fine frond-like pale green-brown seaweed that grows in inter-tidal waters and emits sulfuric acid and has out of the water a ph of 2% so would burn your digestive system (perhaps you could use this in your iodine making experiments to get the iodine out of seaweed?).
“I grew up on the wide sandy beach at Marske-by-Sea on the North East Coast, barefoot and raggy-haired, alone, dreaming of joining the mermaids. My school was only seventy metres from the beach so I even chose coastal erosion as my geography project to justify to the teacher why I should spend his lessons ‘on-site’. Moving inland to live on farms in Yorkshire subsequently meant I’ve lost touch with the wide skies and the fresh salty smell of the coast – if you are lucky enough to live near the coast make a pledge now with me to get out to the beach soon and bring seaweed into your life! Post your pictures on Facebook and remember to tag ‘Wild Harvest School of Self-Reliance’ – we offer prizes every couple of months for the best tagged photos! – Di Hammill x
A Brief History of Rag Rugging.
Before wall-to-wall carpets the working class families of Britain would’ve blocked out the cold from the floor using home-made rugs assembled from rags of cloth that were torn from old clothes, bedding, coats and household items. I like rag-rugging because it is a no-sew textile craft and Im not that proficient or patient at sewing!
Each year the whole family would get involved in making the new hearth rug, with children cutting up bits of cloth, parents prodding and poking the rags through the backing material. The old hearth rug would then be relegated to the kitchen and the kitchen rug in turn to the back door. The back door rag-rug would then become the cover for the potato clamp or the compost heap. Given the fact that rag rugs were a craft of poorer families and the rugs were so well used that nothing remained, the history of rag rugging isn’t as well documented as that of say embroidery – it was a craft of necessity, not something one would spend much time creating and publishing and documenting elaborate designs so the history of rag rugs is fairly intangible… few real life examples left and no written/drawn history.
Rag Rugging is said to have originated in West Yorkshire Mill Girls innovation born out of need – when they asked to take home the hessian sacks that the wool came into the mills in and were allowed to take home any of the scraps of wool fabric that were under nine inches long. The settlers later took the home craft to America but because the cloth of the US was cotton the rag rugs developed differently over the Atlantic – with long strips of cotton fabric from old dresses and household fabrics usually in pale and flowery patterns, braided then coiled into circles. images.
Materials and Tools for Rag Rugging – Nothing Special Needed!
Aside from a couple of black bags of old fabrics – fleeces, t-shirts, sweathirts, felts, being the best, the tools needed for rag-rugging are minimal. You can get away with a piece of hessian and a pencil for the clippy method and for hooky method of rag hugging you can use a crochet hook rather than buy a special rag-rugging tool. A piece of chalk to draw on a rough design and a needle and thread or bondaweb to turn over the edges at the end can also be useful but in its bare bones a piece of hessian and a pencil would make a rug. Scissors too of course for the cutting.
A Family Activity with Useful Results – Could Rag Rugging be right for your family?
There still exists a few older folk who remember helping their grandparents rag-rug and they always smile when they recall their memories of it so one can only assume it was a cosy family time together, the kind of time we have replaced with individual technology time. We still end up with old clothes though and we still use rugs if the contents of the shops is anything to go by so if you are interested in crafting and can hold a pencil then you should consider this easy yet fulfilling craft. To produce something useful and beautiful out of old cast-offs is pragmatic art at its best. I personally don’t like to spend time making things that aren’t both useful and earth-friendly so rag-rugging ticks my conscientious crafting box.
Learning How to Rag-Rug
Wild Harvest is producing two videos showing you how to do two different rag-rugging techniques; clippy and hooky. Clippy, also known as Proddy or Proggy, is a technique so called because it involves prodding short clips of fabric through a hessian backing piece. Hooky involves threading a long strip of fabric over and under the weave of the hessian, forming little balls on the topside of the hessian with ‘hooks’ of fabric. Each method is different to do and gives distinct differences in appearance, each method can be used alone or combined with the other method. Clippy is the type that is usually associated with rag-rugging and is the shag pile scruffy looking tufty rug style usually with more abstract patterns whereas hooky is finer and can give rise to quite detailed designs, some rag rugs are almost works of art to be hung on the walls as hooky can allow shading and details of design that is more like a painting. Watch the videos and try both methods to see which you prefer but remember you can use both methods in one rug!
To attend a rag-rugging course contact Wild Harvest School www.wildharvest.org
Where our local supermarkets and restaurants stand today our ancestors once hunted and gathered their food. Hunting and gathering was, over the last century, becoming a romantic relic from the past. The subject of anthropologists and historians (how eating such large quantities of nettles in World War Two was said to give certain communities green tinged skin) wild food foraging has experienced an upsurge in popularity, so let’s look at some of the reasons why modern man may wish to learn about wild food today.
Benefits of Wild Food Foraging
Firstly, wild plants have optimized to survive on their own – we don’t have to do anything at all to enable their growth. Foraging is therefore easy gardening – it is a low input-maximum output system of gardening – we don’t have to worry about planting, potting on, weeding and watering. Nature does all this for us leaving us simply to do the harvesting.
Secondly, foraged greens are the ultimate in ‘local food’. You can’t get fewer food miles than the distance between the dandelion patch on the green over the road and your front door. Unless, of course, you decide after reading this to allow a few weeds to colonize a part of your own garden.
The third advantage of wild greens over the cultivated veg. we buy from shops is that they are usually healthier. How? On two accounts. They are ultra fresh having just been picked by you, they haven’t sat on supermarket shelves for three days and in chilled transit for a week before that (some vitamins diminish over time and with exposure to air or heat). Wild plants are usually of the darker green colour and of the bitter perennial type which are packed with minerals from the soil drawn thirstily up a long tap root through the need to survive harsh conditions without help and these are then deposited in the leaves/roots/flowers of the plant. These plants are known as dynamic accumulators. Compare a dark green shiny dandelion leaf to insipid water filled nutrient deficient iceberg lettuce or white cabbage – bred to meet a demand for bland taste rather than nutritional content.
A fourth advantage is simply that wild food is free. Learning about foraging can ensure you a lifelong supply of free greens for your family!
The main benefit though, I believe, is this:
Economic, social or climatic disaster could see our shops empty in three days due to the modern tendency to operate ‘Just In Time’ Stocking Systems to minimise capital outlay. How would you feed your family? The reason I started to learn about wild food nearly twenty years ago was to future-proof my children. In an uncertain future where imports may stop and domestic food production could be under pressure, to have knowledge of a native wild food source could save their lives.
Warnings When Learning to Forage for Wild Foods
So, we have considered the benefits of learning about wild food, but there are also some warnings that must also be communicated here, caveats to heed before embarking on gathering wild food.
Here they are:
Pollution. If we are hoping to eat wild plants for their health giving properties it is no use collecting them from busy roadsides or the edges of recently sprayed fields as we will be ingesting potentially harmful chemicals. Always harvest away from busy roads and recently sprayed farmers fields (you can usually tell a sprayed field because the weeds in in will be pale and droopy).
Law. When harvesting it is important to work within the law. Law relating to wild food foraging would be concerned with theft, trespass and conservation. Foragers are protected under law from theft charges as we are allowed to gather leaves, flowers, berries and mushrooms without being guilty of a Theft Act offence but must not uproot a plant without the owners permission. In theory you still need the landowners permission to cross land/take these weeds though or you could be guilty of trespass. Finally the law protects some plants that are at risk we must not forage these for the conservation of their species. For a full list (updated every five years see Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981) but don’t worry too much about this as there is still plenty of more common obvious stuff to start with anyway!
Conservation in its own right, not just to adhere to the law. Natives living in nature based cultures know to just take a little from a few plants rather than strip a resource dry. When berry collecting in Autumn always leave some fruit for the birds to winter on, some for the plant to reproduce. If you struggle with the temptation to pick the lot – think about the fact that the birds, by eating berries will be ensuring the future survival of the berry giving shrub by pooping out the seeds in ready made fertiliser onto the soil around ensuring bountiful supply for your own tomorrow too so leave some for this reason.
Identification Errors. Although there are many edible plants growing in the UK there are numerous poisonous plants, the consumption of which could result in serious illness or even death! So, rather than just looking at a new plants’ picture in a book for a quick i.d before you guzzle it down compare other variables than just its appearance…
After comparing the plant to a clear image in a reputable reference book, I personally prefer photographs rather than artist drawings however beautiful and I like photos across a couple of books showing the plant in all its growing stages from overwintering rosette, spring buds, summer foliage and autumn fruits/seeds. After the visuals – compare notes on the plants habitat eg. woodland or pasture, light preferences, seasonality with your observations of the current plants situation and only then decide if you have a match.
This isn’t the end of it, you should then do a sensitivity test next. This involves:
Rubbing the plant on a sensitive part of your skin eg. inside arm or neck.
Wait for 15 – 30 mins. If no itching or stinging occurs chew a small piece of the plant and spit it out. There are always exceptions though – (think nettle) and conversely not all poisonous plants sting, again this is just one of many tests to be performed together.
Wait for 15 – 30 mins. If no ill feeling follows chew and swallow another mouthful.
Wait for 15 – 30 mins. If all is well go ahead and tuck in.
This may seem laborious and lengthy but it is only done in situations where you are still new to a plant.
Seasonality, Processing and Storing of Wild Food
Your diet was once about ‘what you could get and when’ as there were no fridge/freezers and not much in the way of imported food, certainly not for the poor. Eating what was in season fresh or learning to store harvested food to keep over the year especially during the hungry gap wasn’t a fashion it was the only way to survive. Our ancestors learned to preserve the wild harvest by drying, smoking, salting, steeping in oil or covering in fat to prevent air (and hence bacteria) entering, pickling, or boiling into a syrup (foods with high sugar content eg. honey keep well).
In late Spring, Summer and Autumn food is abundant but in Winter, for hunter gatherers , it was important to know where and when root foods were available. Roots store the foodstuff and vital energy of a plant over winter to give it growth in the Spring so the optimum time for eating roots is autumn/winter. More importantly though, our ancestors would have to find these roots in winter when the leaves of the plant; the usual indicator, would’ve died back. Some plants leave overwintering rosettes of leaves often very different to the plants actual leaves but at least there was some marker to show where to dig. To dig speculatively for roots in winter would expend more energy than would be gained by eating the results of digging so this method would not have been used unless their was another system of indicators. Our ancestors would’ve had a much greater awareness of plant life cycles and a system of markers. Roots are very rich in starch and have always been a good winter food (think how we still yearn for baked potatoes on a cold bonfire night) and so roots, together with dried meats, dried herbs (all reconstituted in a hot water to make a broth) and dried berry fruit leathers, nuts and seeds would’ve been the winter staples until other methods of processing and storing became available. Examples of wild edible roots are dandelion, dock, silverweed, marshmallow, bullrush and dock, thistle and burdock. These can be used immediately or stored by roasting/drying and chopping or grinding into a powder to store and add to the pot later.
Now of course we can preserve berries in fancy vinegar and oil or freeze them on fast freeze or dry herbs and mushrooms in an electric dehydrator but please do practice with traditional, fire, fat or solar methods of preserving, just so you have the skill for a time when you may need it.
Following the energy of the plant, after winter the growth forces move up from the roots to enter the stems, leaf buds, and leaves so Spring is a time for eating spring greens. Some weeds surface as early as February and so can provide a refreshing plate of spring greens to end the hungry gap. Useful early weeds are dock, lesser celandine, chickweed, cleavers (goosegrass or sticky willy), dandelion and nettle leaves. Followed by hogweed leaf buds (huge, cooked like asparagus) and ramson. These can all be simply mixed together steam fried with butter and seasoning as the green part to a meal, dried into vitamin rich powder to add to other dishes or have as tea. Leaves on trees follow and certain types can be eaten; beech in April raw as the green layer in a sandwich or cooked, silver birch leaf tea rich in vitamins a, b, c and e. I tend to dry leafy greens by laying them in baskets cover with brown paper or a tea towel and leave in warm dry room for two weeks turning occasionally then crumble the leaves into jars (adding dried flowers or other ingredients as they come available) these can be made into teas or added to meals eg. rice, omelette’s or crumbles over the next year. This way, long after the leaves have died back outside we are still getting the benefits of wild greens in our diet. To preserve leaves by drying retains much of their goodness and indeeds concentrates it as you are simply evaporating the water out. Some wild greens eg. plantain or ash keys are so bitter that they need double boiling to make them edible. Double boiling involves bringing the plant to boil in one lot of water, changing the water then re-boiling.
Blossom and flowers follow on from the leaves, some can be a wayside nibble; hawthorn and blackthorn, while others like elderflowers can be made into fritters (dipped in batter and sprinkled with sugar) or made into recipes such as strawberry and rose-petal fool or sweet violet sauce for venison, meadowsweet flavoured ice-cream and sweet ciceley and rhubarb preserve.
Towards the end of summer the flowers give way to either fruit, berries, seeds or nuts. The hogweed gives round flat seeds that give a citrus peel flavouring to puddings or can be eaten as a wayside nibble. On my walks I warn students they taste like citrus peel with a washing-up liquid after-taste! Large, long sweet cicely seeds have an aniseed flavour. Gather hazelnuts early to beat the squirrels and store them in shells in your airing cupboard.
In 2010, I became concerned not only with preserving the wild harvest but preserving the nutritional content as best I could. I decided after making elderberry cordial, rosehip syrup and hedgerow berry jam for years that I was boiling the life out of fresh fruit and decided to research the effects of heat on vitamin ‘c’. Having believed the old wives tales of making vitamin ‘c’ rich berry syrups for my children for a decade I bowed to modern science and reluctantly realised that I had been boiling most of the vitamin c out of the fruit for years. I therefore began experimenting with different ways of preserving berries without cooking. These are some of the ways I have discovered:
1. Fruit Leathers: mash up the berries in a bowl, pick out as many stones as possible (you could mash through a large gauge sieve, spread the paste thinly and dry somewhere in the sun but covered with paper or in the oven on a very low heat eg. 47 degrees for a couple of days. Cut the dried leather into sheets and store in air tight container. I have made leathers that have lasted nearly three years made in this way.
2. Put uncooked berries into vinegar and oil as a sweet salad dressing.
3. Blend with vanilla ice cream and refreeze.
Make a sugar syrup, pack uncooked bashed or pricked berries into a jar and cover with the hot syrup. Leave to seep for about three weeks then blend in a food processor to make a vitamin ‘C’ rich syrup.
Berries and rosehips could be dried whole to make a tea later, strained through muslin
Freeze small berries like elderberries in ice cube trays to pop out when needed.
Beginning with Wild Food.
To begin your journey into wild food foraging, processing and storing I recommend that you start with just three to five plants this year. Right now, choose three to five easily identifiable, easily accessible and simple to prepare weeds, I recommend dandelion, nettle, elderflowers/elderberries, ramson, and maybe daisy as they all meet these criteria but you can choose others. Write them down now or google some if you are having trouble thinking of names of weeds. Find one way you can use each and pledge to go out collecting this week and set aside some extra time before one mealtime to get to grips with it. Here are some basic family meal ideas, I dont apologize for not being ‘foodie’ I came to this from a background of being neglected underfed child then as a concerned mother wanting to future-proof her children so I don’t tend to offer gourmet recipes just healthy family basics. Plus I find it offensive to take a commoners food source and turn it into a fancy meal to impress friends at dinner parties or charge too much for in restaurants looking for a niche.
Bacon and Dandelion Pasta. Fry some bacon (or quorn?) roughly chop and fry a couple of handfuls per person of small/medium size dandelion leaves and a little onion with the meat, add to pasta.
Chickweed Pakora. Collect a small carrier bag of chickweed. Chop roughly. Make up a batter mix adding spices of curry, cumin etc. Stir in the chopped chickweed. Put dollops of the chickweed/batter mix into the frying pan and cook in oil. Drain on kitchen roll.
Elderflower cordial. Pick 12 heads of elderflowers on a dry non windy morning (else the pollen will have blown/washed away and the taste will not be as piquant). Put them upside down in a large bowl, cover with cold water and weigh the flowers down with a plate so they sit under the water. Leave for 24 hours then strain the water through a sieve into a pan, measure the liquid and for every 1pt add 300g of white sugar. Bring the flower water/sugar mixture to boil, add optional squeeze lemon, bottle hot in sterile bottles and seal immediately. The cordial will keep for up to three years. Dilute to taste with cold or hot water, fizzy water or milk or pour over deserts like a syrup, elderflower is especially nice to sweeten gooseberry deserts. A simple way to make champagne is to add a pinch of yeast to one of your cordial bottles decanted into a larger plastic pop bottle, shake then leave for two or three days, let off air and leave again. After about 5 days you will have light fizzy champagne without the complicated methods found in many recipes.
Elderberry or bilberry sweet yorkshire puddings with cream and sugar. Make up batter mix, add elderberries and spoon of white sugar, cook as yorkshire puddings and serve sprinkled with sugar and cream.
Ramson (or wild garlic) is often found in woods near rivers. Gather a few handfuls and chop up and mix with either new potatoes and butter or cream cheese and pasta. Use the white flowers in salads.
Nettle soup (and any other of the greens above thrown in) Collect a carrier bag of nettles from a shady spot so the nettles are not too dark, large and tough. Chop and fry a potato and an onion in oil, add the nettles (removing any large stems) and salt and pepper. Put a lid on and wilt it for a minute then add stock to just cover the nettles. Cook until the nettles are mushy then put in food processor with some cream and nutmeg to taste. My children will eat three bowls of this in a row! You could put a blob of cream cheese in to serve and a sprinkle of nutmeg, serve with oat cakes or crusty bread.
Adding to Your repertoire of Wild Food Recipes
When you have got used to including these ingredients in family meals without having to refer to recipes, choose another three to five plants to research and use. For the next year I might add:
Hogweed leaf buds
Jack by the hedge
Red clover flowers or lavender.
Wood Sorrel – looks like clover but found in woods and has a very tart lemony taste. Chop finely and mix with sugar and a little vinegar/oil to stuff fish. Serve with mash potato (including some silverweed root?) and steam fried hogweed leaf buds covered in butter.
Grate the root of Jack by the Hedge (garlic mustard) and add it to some mince to form into burgers. Serve in a bun with cheese and fresh garlic mustard leaves).
Make some almond shortbread biscuits and add either red clover flowers (chopped up) or lavender or dry red clover, lavender, chamomile and rose flowers to sweeten herb tea.
‘Gardeners Revenge’. Ground elder is no relation to the Elder tree but is still as useful in the kitchen and dry frying it and serving it in omelette or pasta gives gardeners the opportunity to get their own back on this pervasive troublesome weed. It’s really tasty and very easy to prepare – just fry!
Wild Food Foraging should no longer be seen as a quaint old fashioned idea our fore-bearer’s did for their survival because it’s benefits are too numerous to ignore for families today. The knowledge of how to secure healthy local food easily and for free is surely a legacy you would want to leave your children…. so get foraging now!
For advice or to book on a wild food walk or rural craft course with Diana please visit www.wildharvest.org
Watching Felicity Kendall on The Good Life was bad for you after all, says garden guru Monty Don
By Lindsay Pantry Friday 29 July 2016
IT was a vision of 70s suburbia that had viewers wishing they could give up the rat race, surround themselves with chickens and live off the land. But according to television gardener Monty Don, the self-sufficient lifestyle promoted by Felicity Kendall and Richard Briers in The Good Life is a “non-starter” and likely to lead those who pursue it into “13th-century malnutrition”.
Whilst acknowledging the benefits of growing some fruit, vegetables and herbs – which he says is one of the most life-enhancing things a person can do – he slammed Kendall and Briers’ Barbara and Tom as “creepily pathetic”.
Writing in Gardeners’ World magazine, he said: “No one seriously wanted to know how to separate curds from whey or render fat to make candles, but millions wanted the idea of self-sufficiency. “Self-sufficiency, I have to tell you, is a non-starter.
At best it consigns you to a life of dreary repetition and terrible food, at worst your teeth fall out, your breath stinks, you erupt in boils and you sink into 13th-century malnutrition – The Good Life indeed.”
But Shaun McKenna, who in 2014 moved with his wife Wendy and family from the York suburbs to an eight-acre smallholding in Everingham, on the edge of the Yorkshire Wolds, disagrees.
Monty Don While complete self-sufficiency has taken a back seat in recent months as they opened a tea shop at their farm, they produce everything from potatoes, peas and beans to chili peppers, raspberries, figs and butternut squash in around a quarter of an acre of raised beds and greenhouses.
A local butcher and meat curer help them to produce pork, bacon and sausages from their pigs, and anything the family doesn’t need themselves is sold in the teashop.
Mr McKenna, who documents his journey in a column in The Yorkshire Post’s Country Week supplement, said: “There’s nothing like pulling a pea pod and tasting it straight away to make you sea what a difference there is in home-grown food. “I’m not saying it’s easy. We’re the first to admit we’ve made mistakes – last year we emptied our compost heap into the raised beds and had poppies and nettles springing up amongst the beetroot.
Richard Briers, Felicity Kendal, Paul Eddington and Penelope Keith in The Good Life “But to knock people who want to become more self-sufficient is a little harsh. You can be malnourished by feeding yourself off the supermarket shelf – the convenience world doesn’t provide you with everything you need.”
Di Hammill runs self-sufficiency courses on topics such as permaculture, hen keeping and wild food foraging at her farm in East Cottingwith, near Pocklington. She also disagrees with Mr Don and says reducing reliance on bought-in goods and services empowers people and strengthens communities. She prefers the term “self-reliance”.
“This can be done in an urban setting and can be as simple as using permaculture principles to grow half your food supply in your garden, attending some craft workshops so that you can knit some jumpers, learning to bake and cook from scratch and use herbs for medicine instead of rushing to the doctors,” said Miss Hammill. “The term self-sufficiency immediately conjures up images of needing a smallholding and land so stops people before they start.”
Heather Parry, deputy chief executive at Yorkshire Agricultural Society, said she agreed with Mr Don’s point of view about self-sufficiency, but also the benefits of growing some food yourself.She said the Society’s Harrogate farm shop, Fodder, had 350 local suppliers – something that would be impossible to replicate at home, so supplementing self-grown food with locally produced food is the way forward.“
In terms of the amount of space and facilities you need, being self-sufficient would be testing,” she said. “But the idea of growing some food depending on what you have got is great.“Look at you diet, what you spend your money on and what you would benefit from, and going from there. Start with easy things like potatoes and tomatoes and build it up.”
It sounds simple but ‘What is a Candle?’
A candle is a combination of fuel and wick, add a third component, fire, to give long-lasting light. Before electric this is all there was to enable our ancestors to see after dark, we know this already BUT did you know that:
The fuels in traditional candles were animal fats, plant oils (nuts/seeds and stones) or beeswax while wicks were made from twisted plant fibres. In fact that is all modern wick still is… cotton-grass twisted, bleached and dried. In the past our ancestors would’ve used twisted nettle stem or rush grass as the wick here in the UK as we didn’t have cotton as a native plant. We teach all methods on our courses.
Make your own beeswax candles for fun, economy and health.
Do you love buying candles and enjoy filling your home with them but wondered exactly what it is that you are burning and why you can pay up to £25 for a candle?! What is in the smoke and scent that comes from the shop bought candles you burn? How is it that some are so expensive – surely these aren’t made of toxic ingredients?!
Most shop bought candles, including expensive varieties, are made from a combination of paraffin wax, stearin and artificial fragrance – even the expensive ones.
Paraffin wax is made, as its name suggests, from paraffin which is a by-product of the petroleum production industry. It is used because it is cheap and odourless, un-dyed candles made from this tend to be a blue white colour. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for paraffin wax fume exposure of 2 mg per cubed meter over an 8-hour workday.
Stearin is a powder that is added to the wax to make it burn more slowly. Stearin is a hard fat produced from beef or cod liver oil processing. The term ‘fragrance’ or ‘parfum’ can be used to describe a chemical cocktail of up to two hundred different synthetic ingredients.
Do you really want to be filling your home with these substances?
Some modern candles are sold as ‘eco’ because they are made from Soy. They are made by extracting soya bean oil and processing it to become more solid. Soya is very water-heavy crop, plus soy candle industry isn’t regulated and most soy candles do contain other oils like palm and paraffin too. The soya bean oil must travel thousands of miles to get to us as it is not a native plant. At Wild Harvest we like to empower you to create your own light using the resources around you.
Beeswax is a natural wax produced by honey bees and is available in the UK. Beeswax is formed into “scales” by eight wax-producing glands in the abdominal segments of worker bees who discard it in or at the hive. It is capable of making candles without the need for processing or adding other oils.
To get you started we have created a candle-making kit that teaches you two types of simple beeswax candle – melt and pour beeswax and rolled foundation sheet candles.
The Wild Harvest Kit Contents
Six Sheets of Beeswax
Glass Jar with Beeswax Granules
One Waxed Wick
To make the rolled beeswax sheets:
Take a sheet of beeswax and keeping the narrow end toward you lay the wick along the narrow end leaving 1 – 2 centimetres of wick sticking out of one end.
Use your thumbs to gently lift the wax sheet up at the narrow end and squash it down over the wick to trap the wick in place.
Fold the wax over again. Once the wick is trapped in with a couple of folds of wax place your hands as if you were using a rolling pin and roll the sheet up. Keep the tension on and don’t let go until you have rolled the sheet all the way to the other narrow end.
Using the warmth of your thumb press and seal the seam so the candle doesn’t unroll.
Trim the wick sticking out to 1 cm proud of the candle – this is the end you light.
Find a secure holder for your candles eg. a sturdy glass bottles or a candleabra, light and enjoy!
To make the Wild Harvest Kit melted beeswax candle – (melt and pour)
Always melt beeswax slowly and using a double boiler whether this is a pyrex bowl over a pan of water, in the same way you would melt chocolate, or a bain marie. Beeswax in a pan on direct heat will catch and burn.
Use the jar provided with the wax already in and place it, with the lid off, in a pan of hot water. The water should reach to about half to three-quarters up the side of the jar. Place the pan on a medium heat. (picture showing all of above)
Heat the water ensuring the pan doesn’t boil dry. After approximately ten minutes the wax granules will have melted – beeswax melts at approx. 65 degrees. When the beeswax is melted remove from heat and take the jar out of the pan using oven gloves or a cloth as the glass will be hot.
Place the waxed wick – metal end into the jar – and fold the long end of the wick over the side of the jar – you can use a clothes peg to hold it in place until the wax sets. (picture) Leave the jar for ten to twenty minutes before removing the peg and trimming the wick to 1 cm from the top of the wax. (Picture).
Tip 1: For colour – grate a little children’s crayon into the wax as it’s melting.
Tip 2: For shape – experiment with different moulds using heat proof objects from around the home. We have used tuna tins, old jars, silicon cake moulds and orange peel halves.
If you have no mould you can dig a hole in the garden, flatten out the bottom and pour in your wax. When the wax has hardened dig your candle out – you have made an earth candle! Alternatively light it in situ!
If you don’t already have our candle kit and would like to order one they are £10 plus £2 postage payable to [email protected] on Paypal. Please email the same email add. with your address stating what you have ordered.